Description

Executive summary

 

This proposal recommends actions, to be included in an international agreement, to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in such a way to prevent the disasters to the Earth and the Humanity. The proposed actions, identified for each economic sector responsible for the GHGs emissions, will achieve, in the time frame 2012-2050:
 
  • a decrease of the 80% of the GHGs emissions (w.r.t. 2005 emissions and excluding the forestry sector);
  • a total reduction in the forestry sector GHGs emission (i.e. deforestation, harvesting/management).
 
The impacts of the proposed actions are calculated and provided as an input to the MIT model. Examples of the model execution results are:
  • CO2 concentration at 2100:  400 ppm
  • Temperature change at 2100: around 1.2°C
  • Sea level increase of at 2100 w.r.t. 2000 level: around 520 mm.
The following table shows how each action will be implemented. More details can be found in the dedicated sections on how to achieve the actions.
 
 

SECTORS

ACTIONS

HOW-TO

TRANSPORTATION

ACT.TR.1

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT; BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

 ACT.TR.2

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT,USE OF GREEN ENERGY

ACT.TR.3

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ENERGY SUPPLY

ACT.ES.1

USE OF GREEN ENERGY

ACT.ES.2

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT,USE OF GREEN ENERGY

INDUSTRY

ACT.IN.1

USE OF GREEN ENERGY

ACT.IN.2

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

RESIDENTIAL & COMMERCIAL BUILDING

ACT-RC-1

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-RC-2

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-RC-3

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-RC-4

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

FORESTRY

ACT-FR-01

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-FR-02

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

AGRICULTURE

ACT.AG.1

BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

ACT.AG.2

BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM, INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

ACT.AG.3

USE OF GREEN ENERGY

ACT.AG.4

BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM, INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

ACT.AG.5

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

WASTE

ACT-WA-1

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-WA-2

BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

ACT-WA-3

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

ACT-WA-4

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

ACT-WA-5

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

FUNDING

ACT-FUN-1

FUNDS AND THEIR EFFICIENT USAGE

ACT-FUN-1

FUNDS AND THEIR EFFICIENT USAGE

ACT-FUN-1

FUNDS AND THEIR EFFICIENT USAGE

 
This proposal recommends actions that:
  • are feasible and in line with the recommendations of scientific international bodies;
  • can be undertaken by the national governments on the basis of an international agreement;
  • will help the economic growth of the nations.
Each action is numbered for traceability and explained with a detailed rationale. Finally, a dedicated bibliography of the reference documents is also provided at the end of the document.

 

Team

The author of this proposal is Giovanni Macchia. He can be reached at the following email address g.macchia1@gmail.com or contacted with the skypeid giovanni.macchia.

 

What: Actions and impacts

This section describes the actions and the related impacts. Each economic sector affecting the GHGs emissions is analyzed and the related actions are identified and described. The rationale for each single action is also provided. Moreover, the global impacts of the actions are calculated and provided as input to the MIT model. The model execution results are provided (more information are on the on-line plan). Finally, mechanisms for funding the developing countries are identified and proposed in terms of actions.  

 

Transportation

 
The transportation sector accounted, in 2004, for 13.5% of the total GHG emissions [3], specifically CO2. Moreover, the transport sector end-use activities accounted, in 2000, for 13.8% of the total GHGs emission [1]. Therefore, the transportation sector is one of the main contributors to GHG emissions. The following sections provide the action descriptions and the estimated impacts.
 

 ACTIONS

 
ACT.TR.1   The governments shall provide incentives to industries, universities and research centers, to encourage the research on and usage, at industrial level, of the technologies to reduce the vehicle loads. The worldwide usage of such vehicles shall start globally by 2015, with a plan of incentives to the consumers and transportation sector to use vehicles with that technology.  RATIONALE: Reducing the loads (weight, rolling and air resistance and accessory loads) on the vehicles will reduce the work needed to operate it with a decrease of GHGs emissions [2].Therefore, the vehicles with lower load will contribute to reduce the GHGs emissions.
 
ACT.TR.2   The governments shall provide incentives to the industries, universities and research centers, for research on and usage of (at industrial level on vehicles, ships and airplanes) the solar technologies as “fuel”. The worldwide usage shall start by 2018, with a plan of incentives to the consumers and transportation sector to use vehicles with that technology.  RATIONALE: The solar technology applied to the transport sector will reduce the GHGs emission, since no more carbon-based fuel is needed.
 
ACT.TR.3   The governments shall develop policies to maximize the use of public transport and non motorized transport (the public transport vehicles should be in line with ACT-.TR.1 and ACT.TR.2 by 2015). Funds shall be provided to developing countries to adopt this strategy. RATIONALE: The electric vehicles utilization will reduce the GHGs emission from the carbon-based fuel.
 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, the 2050 transport sector GHGs emission will be equivalent to the 2.1% of the global 2004 GHGs emission. A complete GHGs emission abatement could be achieved in the period 2050-2100.  
 
 

Energy Supply

 
The energy supply sector accounted, in 2004, for 25.9% [3] of the global GHG emissions (excluding refineries, coke ovens, etc, which are included in the industry sector). The main emitters are energy source based on coal, gas and oil [4].   The following sections provide the action descriptions and the estimated impacts.
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT.ES.1 The governments shall provide incentive mechanisms for the substitution of power plants emitting GHGs with power plants based on renewable energy source (i.e. solar photovoltaic, thermal solar, wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass).   RATIONALE: The usage of renewable energy will cut the GHGs emission.
 
ACT.ES.2 The government shall invest in the implementation of and research on grids. International financial institutions (e.g. IMF) shall encourage investments among nations to create global agreements to share and use grid-based systems. RATIONALE: The global usage of the grids will allow gaining in energy efficiency (e.g. a country with less energy demand can provide energy to another country with a large demand, based on a global storage grid) and, therefore, will decrease the GHGs emission.

 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, the 2050 energy supply sector GHGs emission will be equivalent to the 4.9 % of the global 2004 GHGs emissions. A complete GHGs emission abatement could be achieved in the period 2050-2100. Indeed, the producers of non-renewable energy source will have time to invest/reconvert in renewable energy and grid system, obtaining also positive economic returns for their countries.
 

Industry

 
The industry sector accounted, in 2004, for 19.4% [3] of the global GHGs emissions (including electricity power supply as end-use). GHGs emissions of this sector include carbon dioxide from energy use, from non-energy uses of fossil fuels and from non-fossil fuel sources (e.g., cement manufacture), as well as non-CO2 gases (PFCs, HFCs, SF6, CH4, N2O). The majority of the GHGs emissions are related to energy consumptions. Indeed, IPCC [5] accounts:
 
  • 2.6 GtC for CO2 energy related emissions in 2004
  • 0.4 GtC for CO2 emissions from non-energy uses of fossil fuels (e.g., production of petrochemicals)and from non-fossil fuel sources (e.g. cement manufacture) in 2000
  • 120 MtC-equivalent for the total emission of non-CO2 gases in 2000 (with the exclusion of food industry due to lack of data)
 
According to that figures, we can estimate that 84% of the GHGs emissions from the industry sector are energy related. The GHGs emission not-related to the energy are estimated to be the 16% (100% minus the percentage related to the energy related emissions) of the industry sector GHGs emissions. Therefore, in terms of 2004 data, the non-energy related emissions accounted for around 3.10% (19.4% times 16%) of the total GHGs emissions. The recycling actions on paper sector are included in the waste sector actions.
 
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT.IN.1 The governments shall apply the same actions for the energy supply sector to the industry sector. RATIONALE: We have seen that the industry emissions are mainly based on energy-related emissions. Therefore, the usage of renewable resource will provide a decrease of the GHGs emissions. 
 
ACT.IN.2 The governments shall provide incentive mechanisms for the research on and usage of technologies to cut the GHGs emissions from non-energy uses of fossil fuels, non-fossil fuel sources and of non-CO2 gases. RATIONALE: The GHGs emissions considered in the actions accounts for the 16% of the industry emissions. Therefore, a cut in those emissions is appropriate.  
 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, the 2050 industry sector GHGs emissions are estimated to be equivalent to the 1.4 % of the 2004 global GHGs emission.  
 

Residential & Commercial Buildings

 
The residential and commercial buildings accounted, in 2004, for the 7.9% of the global GHG emissions [3]. In 2004, direct emissions from the buildings sector (excluding the emissions from electricity use) were about 3GtCO2, 0.4 GtCO2 equivalent of methane (CH4), 0.1 GtCO2 equivalent of nitrous oxide (N2O) and 1.5 GtCO2-equivalent halocarbons (including CFCs and HCFCs) [6]. The following sections provide the proposed actions and impacts.
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT-RC-1. The governments shall invest in information campaigns for the education of the end-users to raise their awareness about energy-efficiency and GHGs emission cut opportunities. Developing countries shall be helped with technological assistance from the developed countries. RATIONALE: Awareness of energy efficiency and emission cut opportunities will help to get more eco-friendly behavior from end-user. Therefore, a global decrease in GHGs emissions from commercial and residential building will be obtained.
 
 ACT-RC-2. The governments shall invest in training the building sector operators (e.g. architects, engineers, interior designers, plumbers and electricians) to raise their awareness about energy-efficiency and GHGs emission cuts. Technical schools and universities should also address those issues. Developing countries shall be helped with technological assistance from the developed countries. RATIONALE: Awareness of energy efficiency will help the operators in the construction of energy-efficiency and low emission buildings. Therefore, a decrease of GHGs emission will be obtained.
 
ACT-RC-3. The governments shall provide incentives to end-users for the usage of GHGs low-emission/high-efficiency equipments (e.g. appliances, lighting, etc) and the installation of equipment/small plants based on renewable energy sources.  RATIONALE: Incentives for the use of GHGs low-emission, high-efficiency equipment and for the installation of small renewable energy system will convince the end-user of the “green-technology” attractiveness. Therefore, a global reduction of GHGs emissions from commercial and residential building will be obtained.
 
ACT-RC-4. The governments shall provide incentives to industries and universities for the R&D on and usage, at industrial level, of GHGs low emission equipment. Technology transfers to developing countries shall be foreseen by development countries. RATIONALE: Incentives to industry and universities will be a lever for the development and usage of GHGs low emission equipments in the market.
 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, the 2050 residential and commercial building sector GHGs emission are estimated to be equivalent to the 1 % of the 2004 global GHGs emission. A complete GHGs emission abatement could also be achieved in the period 2050-2100. 
 

Forestry

 
The forestry accounted, in 2004, for the 17.4% of the global GHG emissions [3] due to deforestation, harvesting and forest management. Afforestation, reforestation and other practices contributed to decrease (-2.6%) the forestry sector GHGs emission in 2000 [1]. On the contrary, deforestation and harvest/management practices are the contributors to the GHGs emission (respectively with 18.3% and 2.6% in 2000 [1]). Therefore, deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, after the fossil fuel combustion [8]. The following sections provide the proposed actions and the related impacts.
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT-FR-01. The governments shall forbid entities (e.g. industry and population) to perform not sustainable deforestation activities (i.e. afforestation and reforestation activities shall compensate the CO2 emissions of the deforestation activities). RATIONALE: The compensation of deforestation activities and the missing deforestation activities will decrease the GHGs emission of the sector.
 
ACT-FR-02. The governments shall provide incentive mechanisms (including investment in research and development) to improve the forest management and harvest practices with the goal to increase carbon storage. RATIONALE: The CO2 emissions will be reduced since carbon storage is increased.
 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, no GHGs emission from the forestry sector is foresees for 2050.
 

Agriculture

The agriculture accounted, in 2004, for the 13.5% of the global GHGs emissions [3]. This percentage includes agricultural waste burning and savannah burning (non-CO2 emissions). Globally, agricultural CH4 and N2O emissions have increased by nearly 17% from 1990 to 2005, an average annual emission increase of about 60 MtCO2-equivalent per year [9]. The following sections provide the proposed actions and the related impacts.
 
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT.AG.1 The governments shall develop incentive mechanisms to allow a more efficient management of carbon and nitrogen flows in agricultural ecosystems. RATIONALE: There are several examples of reducing GHGs emissions through efficiency. According to [10], practices that deliver added nitrogen more efficiently to crops often reduce N2O emissions. Moreover, managing livestock to make most efficient use of feeds often reduces amounts of CH4 produced [11]. 
 
ACT.AG.2 The governments shall invest in research of and provide incentives for management practices aimed to withdraw CO2. RATIONALE: According to IPCC [9] “Any practice that increases the photosynthetic input of carbon and/or slows the return of stored carbon to CO2 via respiration, fire or erosion will increase carbon reserves, thereby ‘sequestering’ carbon or building carbon ‘sinks’”.
 
ACT.AG.3 The governments shall provide investments and incentive mechanisms to allow that crops and residues from agricultural lands can be used as a source of fuel, either directly or after conversion. RATIONALE: These bio-energy feedstocks release CO2 upon combustion, but the carbon is of recent atmospheric origin, via photosynthesis, rather than from fossil carbon.
 
ACT.AG.4 The governments shall develop policies (e.g. incentives, laws, research in better management practices, etc) to forestall the cultivation of new lands now under forest, grassland or other non-agricultural vegetation. RATIONALE: In this way, GHGs emissions will be avoided.
 
ACT.AG.5 The governments shall invest in research on and provide incentives for improved nutrition of ruminants and better management of paddy rice. RATIONALE: According to [12], an improved nutrition of ruminants and better management of paddy rice will reduce the CH4 emissions.
 

IMPACTS

 
IPCC Second Assessment Report [12] estimated that an improved nutrition of ruminants and a better management of paddy rice can reduce the CH4 emissions from by 15 to 56%, and that improved management could reduce N2O emissions by 9-26%. With the proposed actions, the 2050 agriculture sector GHGs emission are estimated to be equivalent to the 6 % of the 2004 global GHGs emission.
 

Waste

 
The waste sector accounted, in 2004, for the 2.8% of the global GHGs emissions [3]. The largest source
is landfill CH4, followed by wastewater CH4 and N2O. In addition, minor emissions of CO2 result from incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics, synthetic textiles) [13]. The following sections provide the proposed actions and the related impacts.
 
 

ACTIONS

 
ACT-WA-1. The governments shall perform policies to reach a 100% percentage of waste recycling by 2015. After that date, the governments shall forbid the use of landfill in the waste management cycle. RATIONALE: A complete recycle of the waste will avoid GHGs emissions from incinerators and landfill.
 
ACT-WA-2. Governments shall invest in active landfill gas extraction system. RATIONALE: With this action the emissions of existing landfill will be dropped.
 
ACT-WA-3. Governments shall invest in research on and in usage of technologies for wastewater
management, collection, treatment, re-use and disposal. RATIONALE: With this action the CH4 and N2O emissions from wastewater will be dropped.
 
ACT-WA-4. Governments shall develop policies and incentive mechanisms to maximize the recycle of paper. RATIONALE: This action will provide a decrease of GHGs emissions in several sectors. The energy supply sector will decrease the GHGs emissions due to the energy produced to build paper and related material. The paper recycle will help to decrease the deforestation activities.
 
ACT-WA-5. Governments shall invest in communications to create awareness in the citizens about the recycle issues. RATIONALE: A citizen with adequate knowledge is fundamental for an effective application of the measurements in the recycling.
 

IMPACTS

 
With the proposed actions, the 2050 waste sector GHGs emission are estimated to be 0.1 % of the 2004 global GHGs emission.
 

Funding

 
The MIT Climate Collaboratorium Financial transfers in climate negotiations provides a good overview of the funds and their foreseen utilization. This plan proposes actions that will allow an effective utilization of the foreseen funds to support the government actions previously described. 
 
 

ACTIONS

 
 
ACT-FUN-1 A global fund for the research and development activities foreseen in the previous actions shall be created. The fund shall be coordinated by an international independent authority. Each government shall provide its contribution according to a share proportional to its richness (e.g. a share proportional to GDP). The developing countries shall provide the half of the sum that they should have paid with a share proportional to their richness (e.g. the half of the share proportional to GDP). A government will get funds according to its spending on and usage of the technologies related to this fund according to the rule: no research no money. A control and monitoring system will be implemented. RATIONALE: This mechanism awards the nations investing in technology. Therefore, the governments should find convenient to invest in technology to avoid losing their money. Furthermore, the developing countries should also find a convenience to invest in technology in order to get more funds than what they should invest.
 
 ACT-FUN-2 A global fund for the implementation of the actions shall be created. The fund shall be coordinated by an international independent authority. Each government shall provide its contribution according to a share proportional to its richness (e.g. a share proportional to GDP). The developing countries shall provide a quarter of the sum that they should have paid with a share proportional to their richness (e.g. a quarter of the share proportional to GDP). A government will get funds according to its effective implementation of the actions with the rule: no implementation, no money. A control and monitoring system will be implemented. RATIONALE: This mechanism awards the nations adopting the actions. Therefore, the governments should find convenient to invest in technology to avoid losing their money. Furthermore, the developing countries should also find a convenience to invest in technology in order to get more funds than what they should invest.
 
 ACT-FUN-3 A global fund to support the developing countries in R&D and usage of the “green actions” will be created. The fund shall be coordinated by an international independent authority. Each developed country shall provide its contribution according to a share proportional to its richness (e.g. GDP). The developing countries will get funds to support the effective implementation of the actions. A control and monitoring system will be implemented. RATIONALE: The developing countries should find convenient to adopt policy and obtain a technology transfer from the developed countries. In this way, the developing countries will obtain two benefits: technology independence and possibility to adopt green policies.
 
 

IMPACTS

 
The creation and usage of the proposed funds will initiate a virtuous mechanism, both for developing and developed countries, in the action implementation. Therefore, it is expected that all the countries will contribute, in the same time frame, to the reduction of the greenhouse gases. Moreover, policies like “non investment no money” will accelerate the implementation of actions.
 

OVERALL IMPACTS AND MODEL RESULTS

 
The following table provides the overall GHGs emission reductions foreseen with the implementation of actions. The 2050 data are considered as percentage of the 2004 global GHGs emission, according to the impact results described above. For example, the transportation 2.1% value means that the GHG emissions in 2050 from the transportation sector are the 2.1% of the 2004 global GHG emissions. Therefore, the global reduction in emissions is obtained from the difference between the total of 2004 and the total of 2050.
 

SECTOR

GHG EMISSIONS (%)

2004

2050

TRANSPORTATION

13.1

2.1

ENERGY SUPPLY

25.9

4.9

INDUSTRY

19.4

1.4

RESIDENTIAL & COMMERCIAL BUILDING

7.9

1.0

FORESTRY

17.4

0

AGRICULTURE

13.5

4.5

WASTE

2.8

0.1

TOTAL

100

14.0

 

The MIT Model requires a separate input for the forestry contribution. Therefore, the forestry sector contribution has been deleted from the data of the previous table and the remaining data have been normalized without considering its contribution. The results are provided in the following table. Also in this table, the 2050 data are considered as a percentage of the 2004 global GHGs emission, according to the impact results described above.

 

SECTOR

GHG EMISSIONS (%)

2004

2050

TRANSPORTATION

15.86

2.54

ENERGY SUPPLY

31.36

5.93

INDUSTRY

23.49

1.69

RESIDENTIAL & COMMERCIAL BUILDING

9.56

1.21

AGRICULTURE

16.34

5.45

WASTE

3.39

0.12

TOTAL

100.00

16.95

 

A global reduction of 83.05% w.r.t. the 2004 emissions is foreseen by 2050. However, the MIT model compares the 2050 emissions with the 2005 emissions. Therefore, a reduction of 3.05% has been applied to take into account the year change. As final result, a reduction of 80% of the GHGs emissions (w.r.t 2005 GHGs emission) is foreseen in 2050 with the implementation of the proposed actions.

Since the proposed actions will provide a complete reduction of the forestry GHGs emission, a 0 value for the Emission from Deforestation field has been inserted in the model and a 1 value has been inserted in the Sequestration due to Treegrowth field. A summary of the results from the model executions are the following:

  • CO2 concentration at 2100:  400 ppm
  • Temperature change at 2100: around 1.2°C
  • Sea level increase of at 2100  w.r.t. 2000 level: around 520 mm.

 

How: Feasibility of proposal


This section provides evidence on how the proposed actions will be implemented.  

Each section contains the traceability to the implemented actions with the usage of the words “feasibility of actions…” between brackets.
 

INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The international agreement will foresee that Governments shall invest in research and development aimed to elaborate and create solutions to reduce GHGs emissions (feasibility of actions ACT.TR.1, ACT.TR.2, ACT.TR.3, ACT.ES.2, ACT.IN.2, ACT-RC-4, ACT.AG.2, ACT.AG.4, ACT.AG.5, ACT-WA-3,ACT-FR-02).

 

USE OF GREEN ENERGY

 
The international agreement will foresee that Governments shall perform policies to adopt sustainable source of energy (e.g. wind and solar energy) in substitution of plants or other elements (e.g. vehicles) emitting GHGs (feasibility of actions ACT.TR.2, ACT.ES.1, ACT.IN.1 and ACT.AG.3). Moreover, the Governments shall perform policies for the usage (locally and worldwide) of grids (feasibility of actions ACT.ES.2).  

BETTER PRACTICES AND SYSTEM

The international agreement will foresee that Governments shall adopt policies aimed:
  • to incentive better management practices in agriculture (feasibility of actions ACT.AG.2,ACT.AG.4, ACT.AG5)
  • to incentive more efficient management of carbon and nitrogen flows in agricultural ecosystems (feasibility of action ACT.AG.1)
  • to invest in the development of active landfill gas extraction system (feasibility of actions ACT.WA.2)
  • to invest in the usage of technologies to reduce vehicle loads and to cut GHGs emissions from Industry (feasibility of actions ACT.TR.1, ACT.IN.2)
  •  to invest in the usage of low emission equipment and in wastewater management, collection, treatment, re-use and disposal (feasibility of actions ACT.RC.4, ACT.WA.3)
 

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

 
Any change in the lifestyle of the society, in favor of behaviors respectful of the climate change issues, will be useless without a precise and effective political commitment. Indeed, the benefits for the World Population will be tangible in a long-term period, not in the everyday life of the people. Therefore, the international agreement shall foresee that the governments will perform policies aimed to create and sustain effective “ecological behaviors” (feasibility of actions ACT.TR.3, ACT-RC-1, ACT-RC-2, ACT-RC-3,ACT-FR-01, ACT-WA-1, ACT-WA-4, and ACT-WA-5).

 

FUNDS AND THEIR EFFICIENT USAGE

 
One of the main challenges for an international agreement is an appropriate funding management. According to the proposed actions, the international agreement shall foresee 3 funds:
  • A global fund for the research and development activities (feasibility of action ACT-FUN-1)
  •  A global fund for the implementation of the actions (feasibility of action ACT-FUN-2).
  •  A global fund to support the developing countries in R&D and usage of the “green actions” (feasibility of action ACT-FUN-3)
The international agreement shall foresee the implementation of the schemes proposed in the actions ACT-FUN-1, ACT-FUN-2, ACT-FUN-3.

 

Vision of the future under this proposal

With this proposal, the humanity in the 2100 will live in a world where, for example:

  • Small Island Developing States (SIDS) population will continue to live in their islands, without impacts on their original environment. The SIDS population  will not have the need to  migrate in other countries due to the immersion of their countries for the sea level rising
  • The coast-based population will continue to live near their sea, without modification of their environment. In this way, the migrations for flooding due to the sea level increase will be avoided.
  • The population in the world will have enough water to satisfy their needs. The people will not need to migrate in other countries due to the scarcity of water resources.
  • The increase of glacier retreats will be stopped and the population will continue to get benefits from a “glacier-based” economy.

 

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Proposal summary
Concrete Green Actions
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Contest: Contest 2010
Contest 2010: What international climate agreements should the world community make?