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UnConference Notes

The second day featured a facilitated Open Space "UnConference" for participants to delve deeper into the themes explored during the previous day.  Breakout topics were generated by the attendees based on the issues that were of greatest relevance, interest and importance to them, and focused around:


 

How can we make people more concerned about climate change?

 

Convener: Anna B and Elizabeth

Participants: Ana Bohn, Sonya Maruti, Torrey McMillan, Peter Garrett, Jessica Garrett, Tyler Capps, Jim Gula, John Oman

Discussion Summary:

  • Book "What we think about when we don't think about global warming". Yale has research showing stratification of people's beliefs/understandings about global warming. (divides people into six different categories)  Within public health, a lot of changes happen at a social level. This may be an avenue to motivate changes around cc.
  • Need to move people a few yards. It's about connecting people and taking steps.
  • We haven't done the research yet to understand what moves people to action in this area. We are able to do this in other marketing/consumer fields. We should be able to do this with cc.
  • Need to talk to all sides. Very hard to get people to write letters to Congress. Is very exciting to talk to people on all sides.
  • Exhausted and overwhelmed with the fear for child's future. Joining Mothers Out Front helped unfreeze and connect to a network of people with shared concerns. What works well with Mothers Out Front is that we connect to emotions, talk about health. Have house parties. Create a broad network. Connecting local networks helps because it's people you know and trust. Testify at city council hearings, write to legislators. Coming around to realizing it is a social justice issue. This is helping broaden the concerned group.
  • We need massive, widespread change that taps into people's selfish motivations. Need to make the financial benefits clear.
  • WWF addressing 2 big knowledge gaps. How are responses to climate change impacting biodiversity. Working with groups like Peace Corps, School for Field Studies...reach across the world, but not a lot of data coming in from the US. Trying to curate this data and make it available to people. This is bringing stories from frontline of climate change. Also trying to create a cohort of climate ambassadors who will come back to the US with direct experience stories about what is happening in other parts of the world
  • There is a silent majority that understands that climate change is going on and deception is going on. How do we convert that to political action. We have to translate this silent majority into votes.
  • Need a full suite of strategies and tactics...policy change has had more impact than grassroots work. But a lot of the grassroots actions have helped move policy agenda forward at state level. We are an energy illiterate society. So many different metrics to understand. So scientific. It scares people. How do we get through to people that E is interesting, not scary? David Lowe is working on a pictorial energy primer book. Make it personal.
  • Not everyone shares a common set of moral principles. Appealing to people's moral compass is a weak appeal, but appealing to their future desires and financial concerns is a way to tap in.
  • There is content of messages and there is tone. Anger, blame, finger pointing, compassionate, hopeful. What is the right tone?
  • Is hope a driver for behavior change? How does gloom and doom affect folks? Science and data does reach out to some but not all. Trying to link science and data to emotions and stories. Park service is working on doing this with interpretation. - Article on trees talking to each other. Made me realize how human centric we are in our conversations. Does creating caring for other species help?
  • Difference in mentality between a resource exploitation mindset and stewardship mindset. - Gallup survey on what is motivating non-college educated middle income US citizens revealed greatest concern is about their kids. Not economy. - In many developed country cities, people are well buffered from impacts of climate change. TV show "Years of Living Dangerously" shows stories of people
  • people's attitudes are shaped by experience and social relations - Urban Ecology Institute in DC. Way to get people connected to nature, even in urban areas. Very little exposure in the outdoors. Hard to understand that we need it if you don't connect to it.
  • need to connect kids/people to the idea that all our economic and social systems are rooted in ecological systems. That the health of ecological systems is directly connected to the health of human society as we know it.
  • As we make changes to the way we structure our lives (eg public transportation) our lives would improve. People are afraid of losing what they have. How do we get people to see that things can get better with these shifts, rather than worse. - Find messages that relate to people personally.
  • science deniers are harder to establish an emotional connection with. But, children can be influential on their parents. (Bob Ingle). If you can get your constituents to believe something, the politicians will follow.
  • Helps to find out that there are a lot of people working on addressing the issue. Helps people who accept the need to change feel that their individual actions aren't occurring in isolation. Businesses are taking action. Citizen groups are taking action.
  • Dept of Defense has one of the strongest environmental programs and is highly concerned about climate impacts on national security. This may be an avenue to people who don't care for other reasons.
  • You have to make things real to people. Show them the images and stories about what is happening to people and ecosystems all over the world.

 

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Food Feed, Fertilizer and Fuels from the Ocean

 

Convener: Brian von Herzen, Ph.D.

Participants: Eric van Vlandren, James Ferrari, Eduardo Fracassi, Wlliam Berggren,

Discussion Summary:

Carbon in the ocean- turf reserves are a great model we are establish a first Marine Permaculture(TM) pilot from which commercial funding will follow; the cost of materials is $1M/km2 ROI is ~3 years; practical harvesting is 3 months; applications for fish, commercial harvest 6 months to a year- revenue funding- fisheries, reinsurance, governments, world bank. MPA's require up front capital but are self sustaining

Possible next steps:

Planning a lecture at tufts, internships in woods hole, deploying a system in Zanzibar and many locations around the world.

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How to fund finalists

 

Convener: Dave Finnigan, Said Majdi, Tom Manaugh

Participants: Dave Finnigan, Said Majdi, Tom Manaugh, Judy Siglin, Rick Clemenzi, Benjamin Huber, Dan Tefft, Antayra Mares, Michiel Roelofs, Renata Koch Alvarenga, Onkar Kulkarni, Javed Sultan, Saurabh Deshmukh, Seda Mut Altin, Dimoir Quaw, Jayant sathaye, Thomas Malone, Nancy Taubenslag, Whitney Bernstein

Discussion Summary:

  • Breakthrough Energy Coalition has money but Nancy Taubenslag says she checked with them and we are not eligible for it;
  • Nancy says the Green Foundation can help you become a 501c3;
  • Nancy says MIT is working on helping projects find funding;
  • MIT launched partner page with Indiegogo, Team Mobilize Now has launched on that platform;
  • Nancy says Echoing Green may provide fellowship to some of the winners;
  • Nancy says that CoLab will send the Indiegogo link to Climate CoLab members;
  • Need ideas for co-financing and financial ideas to leverage the name of MIT;
  • Javed Sultan - MIT needs to build a nexus between the people and organizations, both US and international, that have money and the MIT Climate CoLab. We need corporate cosponsors of the climate CoLab using the same system that IMF and World Bank use. Get a coalition to put in 5% each of the $2,000,000 and give them credit by putting their names on the masthead.
  • Nancy Taubenslag is developing a winner's and finalist's sub-organization;
  • Dan Tefft says we have the potential for equity crowdinvesting for all stages of our projects - early stage, 501c3, 1st stage and business model for equity crowdfunding, 2nd stage to raise up to $20,000,000 for a project;
  • We can have our own crowdfunding site and even our own hedge fund;
  • We are asking MIT to create a framework for us to use to seek funding;
  • Global Innovation Exchange - A coalition of 100 organizations coming together to implement ideas;
  • Need a wanted board on the CoLab site where we can find people, jobs and funding;
  • CoLab needs a professional staff member who has an entrepreneurial attitude to be in charge of outreach to potential funders;
  • Impact investing is the wave of the future and we need to talk to SOCAP 2017 and Family Investment organizations, like the Family Office, to get them interested in our organizations and in CoLab writ large.
  • Tom closed by saying he wants to know what MIT Climate CoLab can do to become a global leader.


Possible next steps:

  • Stay in touch with each other.
  • Keep the leadership accountable to membership.
  • We are the members and they have agreed to help us if we can give them the ideas.
  • Help them to scale up to become a large international organization.
     

 


 

How biomimicry can inform solutions to climate change

 

Convener: Torrey McMillan

Participants Part:  Jean Chandler- interested citizen. Heads green teams in churches. Torrey McMillan - Great Lakes Biomimicry and Hathaway Brown School. Biomimicry Specialist. Daniel Kruel - Univ. of FL student in Urban Planning John Monaghan - works on sustainability topics for dairy farmers in US. Climate Fellow for colab. Innovation Center for US Dairy. Eduardo Fracassi - university professor at Buenos Aires Institute of Technology- climate change awareness and colab group advisor Jessica Garrett - Voiceover artists and kids book author. Also volunteers for Mothers Out Front. Aylin Vazquez Chenlo - Bioengineering student in Argentina and co-lab participant Nancy Talbenslag - independent consultant. consults with the CoLab. Marco Ivan- student in Argentina Said Majdi - Integral Scientific Institute

Discussion Summary:

  • Using biomimicry to solve energy storage problem -Mimicking photosynthesis process for PV
  • Extracting calcium carbonate, cement -Mimicking shark's skin for paint so ships can reduce drag
  • Online database by Biomimicry Institute -Zygote Quarterly: magazine on Biomimicry -Medical Uses for Biomimicry
  • Ecosystem Performance Standards -HOK Architecture Firm partnered with Biomimicry 3.8, designed model city "Lavasa" -Designing for a dynamic environment, rethinking permanence of our built environment. Looking at beavers for examples.
  • Bridging technical divide between disciplines. Ex: Biologists do not use the same terms that engineers use for certain concepts.
  • ECHO -Life's principles: patterns that biologists notice repeatedly -Context always matters -Cells are the most efficient things on Earth


Possible next steps:

  • Start a Biomimicry Category for Climate CoLab Competition
  • Spread information about Biomimicry -Create a list of sources, literature on Biomimicry
  • Creating a member database to capture members' area of expertise. Share with Climate CoLab: What works? What doesn't?
     

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Local, sustainable systems for basic needs/renewable energy

 

Convener: Bill Tomlinson, George Mokray, Jim Gula

Participants: Jim Goudreau, Yiting Yao, Lucas Kengmana, Amit Kulkarni, Anna Bahn, Sarah Hill, Phil Jutras, Seda Mut Altin, Dimoir Quaw, Agherese Ojelede, Elizabeth Dowey, Nikhil Nadkarni

Discussion Summary:

  • Small scale energy systems are the future Questions of information access
  • poor people don't have access, rich people don't care Interconnected variables
  • food/water/energy How do each of the solutions do to inform the others Need holistic approach Need to make massive changes, therefore need to enlist large populations
  • how do we reach large populations Some people feel they can insulate themselves from the problems with money Collapsonomics
  • Dmitry Orlov Mapping sustainability to space travel Connection to sustainability during WWII
  • the home front in the US
  • victory gardens The squirrel problem in growing food GI bill after WWII led to a consumption society that has never stopped growing Local production is not always the most efficient answer Once people have a taste for international resources, it's hard to go backwards
  • feels regressive Kids can be powerful forces for behavior change US is flat in terms of energy production (Lawrence Livermore labs) for past 15 years; during that time GNP has gone up. Decoupling of energy and economics Massachusetts has built an infrastructure for local agriculture
  • farmers markets. How do we spread the message that you can do this yourself? In Seattle, you have to compost. How about people who have two jobs and no yard? How can they grow their own food? If there were greater efficiency, better ability to access solar energy, it would facilitate the process. Various communities are putting in regulations to reduce energy load. 50% of population at least has a houseplant Discussion so far has been on energy efficiency, not energy conservation. 24 hours lighting is needed in city for safety On military base in CA (Presidio in Monterey), motion sensor lights, which were opposed by security, actually made their job easier b/c they could figure out where they needed to attend.

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Merge Climate Agendas with Social Equity

 

Convener: Rev. Mariana White-Hammond

Participants: Sarah Lipuma, June Shrestha, Nikodem, Swami.

Discussion Summary:

  • How can scientists and technologists see social equity as a part of the climate change issue and how can social justice leaders recognize climate change. Points made:
  • Universities have an opportunity to share information with communities but aren't taking advantage of it.
  • Granting foundations don't put value on impact and outreach.
  • There is a disconnect between the best minds and action on the ground. Communities won't just pick up information and implement it from scientific data.
  • Reaching out to established community leaders can help put knowledge of climate change into the minds of people.
  • There's a need to shift overall mindsets; for communities to embrace a different way of life and not just depending on technology to solve problems without any social change.
  • Needs: education, outreach, influencing funders to appreciate social outreach, raising up people that want to make change
     

Possible next steps:

  • Create a platform for Co-Creation between academia, industry, and civil society. Sharing for problems and solutions (possibly created by CoLab)
  • Community engagement by scientists to build trust in established community networks.
  • Social injustice integration with granting sources
  • give reward to research that includes social justice actions that are implemented
  • Peer-to-peer connection between vulnerable communities who've found solutions to share with others


Other:

The people who are most vulnerable to climate change effects are often also the most vulnerable in society. Giving people the information and tools to create their own solutions will lift them up more than creating solutions and expecting everyone to become willing adopters.

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How to decrease impact of suburbs on CC

 

Convener: Alex Dale

Participants: Alex Dale - US EPA, focus on transportation, AAAS S&T Fellow, strong interest in what infrastructure and engineering looks like for suburbs Amit Kulkarni - NEED Mission James Gula - Torrey McMillan - Yiting Yao - recent grad of U of Michigan - Urban Planning. Elizabeth Dowey - Northeastern Univ. Elizabeth Sheehan - Climate Smart William Berggren

Discussion Summary:

  • People choose living in suburbs for a reason, but from a transportation perspective (and biodiversity and community life) they are awful
  • Suburbs are not a thing in China. Surprising to find people in US prefer to move out of downtown area and move out to country/suburb. Is China building suburbs? Edges of city are building tall apartment buildings. There are more people with cars in China, but even if live on edge of city, would still commute by public transportation b/c of parking in cities.
  • How do we change the commuting scenario for people
  • there is a role that suburbs play for people - a reason they are choosing them. How do we honor that and make them work better for cc and people
  • You can have a lumpy community where parts are dense and others are not. (lives in Newport Beach - suburb of LA, and it's not working there).
  • Mumbai, India has a lot of suburbs. What do India's suburbs look like? City like, but with no tall buildings. Marketplaces are more defined and more spread out. The transportation system in Mumbai in the suburbs is commuter rail. Train every 1-3 minutes. Slow trains, fast trains. Different tracks for all the different trains. 2 tracks for slow trains that stop at all stations. 2 tracks for trains that stop at major stations. 2 tracks for long-route trains. People living in suburbs generally do not own cars. No yards. Apartment living.
  • Minnesota: poor public transportation. Have buses. No trains. Totally car based.
  • There are different definitions of suburbs. Localized cores vs. central core and suburbs.
  • How do we decide how our land gets used? Who gets to decide? How do those decisions get made? Political decisions
  • City government makes a lot of these decisions. In LA area, real estate developers have big influence on development patterns and decisions b/c of political funding.
  • As taught in Urban Planning school in US
  • City has comprehensive plan that is not legally binding. The creation of comprehensive plan is time for community input. But, what is actual participation rate like when collecting community input? What is the process used for collecting public input? Iterative process of drafts and public input/comments. Zoning plan emerges from this and is legally binding. Appeals process for zoning can be very difficult. Comprehensive plan really includes everything at a large scale about the city. Vision of how the city will look and what directions the city will go. In some places, the zoning plan is more static, and city planners have to work around existing zoning plans.
  • City of Vancouver has put a lot in place in terms of greening. There aren't really suburbs around Vancouver. There is a metropolitan region with a lot of different smaller cities around them.
  • Pittsburgh and Cleveland have central cores and lots of municipalities acting independently all around them. This is the case for most cities, but some cities are annexing more of the municipalities around them.
  • Curitiba in Brazil is held up as a model for bus rapid transit
  • High density, transit oriented development.
  • Bus rapid transit: has specific features. designated lanes, accelerated on/off... How can we help suburbs think about ways to address transportation in ways that fit within the suburb model?
  • Rickshaw taxis to get to local metro stations/bus stations. Have preferred stops for these where you know you can find them.
  • Park and rides ans Co-work spaces: decentralized office spaces for working closer to home with supported office environment (eg printers, copiers, meeting rooms, etc)
  • In tech world there is movement away from working from home. Lots of companies started with this model, but have shut down remote work. Synergy from being in collective space. There is also a huge rise in free-lance jobs, so these spaces may be helpful to those folks.
  • Rights of ways that make walking easier in suburbs. Walking/bike connectivity looks different than car connectivity.
  • Need to make walking fun and interesting. Not the monotony of walking in a suburb. A sidewalk is necessary but not sufficient. 


Possible next steps:

  • Have a CoLab contest around suburb design.
  • Have a Colab contest on Land Use.

 


 

Collecting data on climate impacts in communities

 

Convener: Nihil, Jacqui, Niko

Discussion Summary:

  • Crowdsourcing data, incentives for Crowdsourcing 
    industries have problems gather relevant data, WRI: accepted way to track carbon 
    data standards are missing 
    creative data visualization
     

Possible next steps:

  • Working towards standard and engaging ppl (crowdsourcing) 

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Sea Level Rise: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

 

Convener: Daniel Kruel

Participants: Sarah Lipuma, Agharese Ojelede, Jean Chandler, Annalyn Bachmann, Eduardo Fracassi, Daniel Kruel Marco, Ivan Esposito, James Goudreau, Thomas Manaugh

Discussion Summary:

  • Living Shorelines -Retreat: decisions -99% of scientists think we can not stop sea level rise, we must confront it
  • One idea to mitigate sea level rise: focus on underutilized resources in Antarctica to stop sea level rise, attack the place where melting is happening (groundline). Drill holes into the glacier at high leverage point, small amount of keep friction there so glaciers wouldn't be melting and moving water so quickly. More information: Stopping unstoppable sea level rise (climatecolab.org/contests/2015/adaptation/c/proposal/1319603)
  • Bridge gaps
  • Adaptive regulations and policies
  • Insurance policies on sea level rise
  • Political environment on sea level rise
  • Policy discussions -2013 ClimateCoLab winner: Looking at new data on flooding, not depending on historical data. Look at flooding in the Midwest in the future.
  • Impact on urban flooding, infrastructure is built to sustain storms from 40-50 years ago. Storms are getting stronger and infrastructure can't handle the runoff.
  • Migration to the coast, increasing
  • Losing tradition, livelihood, homes due to sea level rise -Coastal erosion
  • Bangladesh, they're responsible for very few of emissions but are getting most of the consequences
  • Other countries addressing sea level rise
  • Habitat III
  • Abandoning army bases, nuclear power plants (National Security issues)
  • Increasing resiliency: providing enough food, better freshwater technologies, sustainable shelter
  • Mangroves


Possible next steps:

  • Create more flexible policies
  • Reduce doubt about climate change, sea level rise
  • Sequester carbon, how do you make it a usable product?
  • Including the army in the conversation

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Direct Investment in Climate Change

 

Convener: Dan Tefft

Participants: Dave Finnigan, Dan Tefft, Sonia Maruti, Brian Von Herzen, Anna Bohn, Dave Doucette, Anastasia Lukyanova, Adriana Matamoros, Michel Roelofs, Marina Fuster

Discussion Summary:
 

  • US Jobs act now gives companies the ability to raise private equity capital to non-accredited investors so we can now announce through Social Media that our opportunity exists, raised $34 Billion last year;
  • Dan is launching an equity crowdfunding site Clime-IT.com for climate change opportunity;
  • There are fees to get into the program to register your business and to get into the portal;
  • Two pipelines - the investors looking for projects and the projects looking for funding;
  • Philanthropic funding is the first stage - grants, friends and family;
  • Venture funding (Hard Money) comes in later once you have metrics, and they want 8X and a seat on the board;
  • Need to bring in not just Venture (which is dumb money), need smart money as well that;
  • Need to go into any financial relationship with humility since these are your teammates;
  • Impact investments are becoming important in the investment World;
  • Insurance companies are coming our way. Clean Development Mechanism (Cap and Trade) needed to sell carbon credits and showed that business had to be profitable because of the carbon pricing;

 

Possible next steps:

  • Get philanthropic funding by incorporating as a not for profit 
  • Post their investment projects on the Clime-IT site when they have metrics.

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Net Zero / Pricing Carbon / Restoring Reality Climate with zero warming

 

Convener: Rick Clemenzi, Peter Garrett, Brian Von Herzn

Participants: Rick Clemenzi, Peter Garrett, Brian Von Herzn, Judy Siglin, David Daecetti, Andrew Vitvitsky, Siti Mond Khairi, Eric Van Vlandren, Joyant Sathaye, Thomas Massmugh, Benjamin Huber

Discussion Summary:

  • NetZero is really possible
  • MIT campus could do it in 25 years at no net cost. Kentucky
  • all schools being built net zero. MA requires geothermal technique training + certification
  • now called "Advanced thermal". Carbon fee + dividend from Citizens Climate Lobby
  • fee imposed on cool oil + gas extractors. Dividend comes to households equally
  • industry will respond by invention
  • a new industrial revolution without fossil fuels. MA Renewable Energy Trust hands out incentives to install equipment for energy efficiency
  • an incentive for best use of the dividend. Utilities are getting on board with transition to alternative energy
  • it will happen. Doucette - new development in Marlboro MA
  • will it be a standard strip mall, or will it be built with solar. More insulation + net zero. Can the developer / contractors be persuaded?
     

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Sustainable Food from Field to Waste

 

Convener: Maria, John

Participants: Marco, Gail, Sarah, Ben, Daniel , Aylin, Madnuri, Anastasia, Robert, Tori

Discussion Summary:

  • Discussion about strategies for reducing food waste
  • Apps, organisations, campaigns dedicated to the theme


Possible next steps:

  • Apply same of the ideas discussed in our cities neighbourhoods etc.

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Novel Transmission Design to increase vehicle miles

 

Convener: Vladimir Abramov

Participants: William Berggren, Donna Shaver

Discussion Summary:

The world has four concepts of the machine powertrain design technology. The first concept of the technology powertrain design is concept of universal machine tool design that permanently uses the highest torque of motor shaft. And the multi-speed shift gearbox increases/reduces standard-idle motor shaft. The inventor Carl Benz used standard-idle motor shaft that directly transforms by system of levers to  wheels of the first world’s vehicle powertrain in Germany (GR Pat. No. 37435, published in 1886). He originally developed including much small motor of 0.75 HP. He also have defined that the ground friction force pushesa vehicle with the power-to-weight ratio equal to 779 LB/HP. It is still valid today. A vehicle acceleration time is time of realizing the pedal of wheels brake from stop.

However, at beginning of 20 Century, US vehicle manufactures ignore these experiences. They create second concept of unlimited reducing motor highest torque in the process of movement. There is the motor interior acceleration system. It adds up to 80% of additional gas or electromagnet field amount to motor physical volume that increases its shaft standard-idle speed. This concept ignores land, water or air friction force that pushes vehicle in the calculation of motor size. It is easy to make focus to increase motor cylinder diameter or number of cylindersfrom 20 HP (1908) to average 200 or more (2016) for car. Therefore excessive motor shaft torque eliminates to need multi-speeds transmission torque. It is used as second indirectly brake of wheels or engine brake for increasing torque magnitude when the accelerationsystem too much reduced it. However, there is way of additional motor energy wasting. Fortunately, the third concept of technology powertrain design that 50% limits to use the acceleration system. There is ZF (Germany) automatic 9-speeds transmission that limited using acceleration system by 4 overdrive or increased speeds. However other 4 torques requests additional motor energy as result of fighting them and the acceleration system. And using of planetary transmission design is too complex, too expensive and waste more energy than the general shift gearbox design. The planetary design never provides 100% increased (overdrive) speeds.

What is alternative concept of technology powertrain design that will be profitable for both manufacture and customer, saves energy and significantly cuts emissions? There is fourth concept extends to use the vehicle/other machine technologypowertrain design of both first and third concepts. It is focus to gear-transmission torques and wheels, propeller speeds. U.S. Pat. No. 8,011,274 disclosed above 1,000 multi-speed shiftgearbox designs with unique combination of shafts and gears according to math formulas. One has least numbers of gears and maybe shafts in the world. Revolutionary technology provides design so that more increased number of speeds is more reduced gear number. For example, one of the designs for heavy duty trucks produces 144 forward/72 reverse torques and overdrive speeds with 26 gears or 2 gears less than the conventional heavy-duty truck shift gearbox of 28 gears to cause 18 forward and 2 reverse through use of transmission overdrive speeds in placed of an acceleration system.

Each multi-speed gear- transmission connected by at least one drive shaft to motors.  Shift gearbox includes

       1.         at least two independent shafts,

       2.         at least one output shaft, and

       3.         often fewer number of gearsets with gear ratios

                   a.         selected from a faltering geometric sequence and

                   b.         arranged to provide a sufficient number of torques and overdrive speeds to the output shaft to satisfactorily operate a vehicle, heavy-duty equipment /other machine

Sufficient number of overdrive speeds reduces if not eliminates to use acceleration system of existing motor size. Therefore it cuts upto 80% of additional gas or electromagnet field amount. It opens opportunity to reduce cost and size of existing motor more than 5 times. The unique methods create at least four maneuverability improvements.

       (1)    It significantly reduces time of machine or parts acceleration from stop by brake realization.

       (2)    It allows the additions of reverse speeds up to the number of forward speeds in haft without additional gears number,

       (3)   It permits temporary use of front to uphill, rear to downhill, or both wheels on horizontal road for additional energy economy and also use of other additional equipment or devices by providing more than one independent shaft at the same time.

       (4)   It permits using at least two propellers for dramatically cutting maneuverability times of the water or in the air over conventional propulsion systems.

It improves driving safety by using the wheel brake pedal for stopping and acceleration from stop.  For overcoming other vehicle in front, we can gas accelerator pedal is replaced by gear ratio accelerator pedal.

Efficiency of each design production is using of the same machine tools systems, equipment, etc. for conventional gear-transmissions. Need CAD model-prototype of $7,000 or $ 50, 000 physical prototype for heavy-duty truck.

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